The basic knowledge for new graduate students:



l           Your advisor is not only a thesis advisor. He is also your mentor and guidance on your spiritual and daily life. Please contact your advisor all the time.

l           You are obligated to joint the group meeting every week and make an oral weekly progress report. You must ask for leave of absence if you cannot attend the meeting. In the group meeting, be sure to report what you did last week and are going to do next week.

l           There is no summer and winter vacation for graduate students.

l           There will be no RA (Research Assistant) position in the first year of your MS or PhD program.  You have a high priority as TA (Teaching Assistant) position at second and third semesters. Some scholarship will be granted if your paper was accepted by SCI journal. Travel support will be available if you give a presentation at a conference.

l           The standard of thesis: For MS program, your work can be published at domestic journal, i.e. your work is among the first rank in Taiwan (for MS program). For Ph.D program, one or two first author SCI papers are required. The ability of independent research should be demonstrated.

l           In the group, on duty obligation in the team work in (1) running synchrotron or other experiments, (2) keeping the lab and office clean, (3) Maintain the lab in normal operation.

l           Your business expense will be covered, such as phone, copy card, stationery and traveling will be paid if necessary. The authorization amount is NT$1000 for the graduate student of first year and NT$3000 (>second year). For more than NT$3000, should ask permission from your advisor before purchasing.

l           Please keep detail record on the experimental notebook all the time. Be sure the other people can follow your notebook and I will sign the notebook every month. Your laboratory notebook and copied papers are properties of the laboratory. Leave it when graduate. Be sure to leave all experimental data, written programs and manuals in dual copies. One copy should be kept in my office. Make sure your successor know how to operate the instrument alone before you leave.

l           Safety is the most important thing. Read the manual before operating an instrument. Read the material safety data sheet before using a chemical agent. There should be no instrument need a great strength unless you use a wrong tool. Don't use your brutal force when handling equipment.

l           Obligation of putting poster on the annual meeting of physics society or material society.

l           Abide the law. No pirate software, illegal copy, files in your computer.

l           After each experiment or business travel and meeting, give a report in the group meeting. A written summary should be prepared and send out for our collaborator after each experiment.

l           A check lists on what you should learn as beginner. For example, learning to write program, running program, learn to operate instruments. Your colleagues can only show you once.

l           Please be honesty to your experimental data.  It is a serious violation of academic discipline if you forge your data. Please let nature expresses it self by nature.

l           You have to learn how to write up a program.

l           You have to understand the error bars for each data you taken. Understand the procedure of error propagation and the way of fitting the data. ( Reference: Bevington: Data Reduction and Error Analysis in Physics Science)

l           Keep close contact with your advisors all the time. More than one week without talking to your advisor is not a proper way as a student.

l           Check each item in the list of graduation


Altitude of doing a research—with scientific spirit

A good scientist is a humble person. He admits that he does not understand the nature completely.

l           Be honest to all your experimental data. Never modify your experimental data without reasoning. It is a crucial academic discipline. Cheating in unbearable in the academic world.

l           If you are not sure about your conclusion or data, then you have to say “ I am not sure”, “ might be”, “ I guess”, “ I speculate that”. As a scientist, if you are sure, you have to speak about it precisely.

l           Team work is essential in a laboratory.

l           Respect someone else’ point of view. You are still young and cannot know everything. Open your mind preparing for accepting more knowledge from different point of views. Don’t be afraid of losing face. Ask for help to learn something from someone.

l           Respect someone else’s work. Every word you said is based on previous job. When you present the point, be sure to quote his work.

l           If you need help, please demand it. Talk about it in the group meeting. Ask your supervisor. It is not a wise step to solve the problem without talk to your colleagues. They might know the answer already. They might face the same problem before. Ask for help to save your time of trial and errors.

l           Your performance, your altitude of doing research and spirits of working together will be supervised by your thesis advisor. In the future, you need the help from your classmate. You also need a recommendation letter from your supervisor when you apply a new job or second jobs. Your supervisor will evaluate your performance all the time. 

l           Be a doubtful person on everything. A scientist will re-exam what other people talked him or does not agree on what the written paper say.


Courses: Please read the regulation at WWW site.

l           The possibility of going directly in PhD program is opened. The application at end of the first year. Early graduation is possible.

l           Check the rule of qualify test on the WWW website.

l           The scattering group has a special time for the group seminar. Please prepare the talk only on thesis related subjects. The first semester: review thesis related papers; Second semester: submit a thesis proposal; Third semester: submit the thesis progress report; Fourth semester. Thesis rehearsal. Hand in the PowerPoint document at first semester, but hand in the formal report after second semester. For Ph.D student after the qualify exam, the seminar should deliver in English.


Check list of graudation:

l           Did you borrow the books or manuals or papers from teachers or other colleagues?

l           Put all the samples labeled and leave in the lab.

l           Leave your lab notebook to the lab. The experimental data in the each file. 

l           Leave your thesis and reduction data in the table and figures in computer files.

l           Leave all the scientific papers you copied to the lab or copy all the files in CD.

l           Leave the chemical agents you brought in the lab.

l           Leave the tools you borrowed in the lab.

l           Check all the instruments you used in the lab and write down the operation instruments for the lab.

l           Write down one page of NSRRC annual report.

l           Prepare a file of poster for the next meeting.  

l           Check any unpaid account.

l           Check any instrument broken in lab and to be fixed.

l           Check any unfinished relation among people to be acknowledged. 


Financial Account:

l           The invoice should be made including the title of NTHU or account number 46804804 (for casher machine) write down in pencil the small items you purchased if no precise printout attached. Give each item the name in detail. Both double or triple type receipts are acceptable and hand in all of them.

l           Furniture, cabinet, table, phone, chair, are special budget. Cannot be reimbursed for most of the projects.

l           PC major components, air conditioners, etc. should be processed in-group, you cannot buy it individually.

l           The unit price larger than NT10,000 is considered to be capital investment. A property sticker will be attached on each equipment.

l           Don’t throw away broken equipment before a proper procedure was taken in order to eliminate it from the official property lists.

l           To buy an equipment with a price of more than NT$100,000. A standard open bid procedure on Internet is required.

l           It needs several months to process a purchasing order from abroad. Please buy the equipment in advanced.



l           Don't try to operate instrument without reading the manual.

l           Don't put the hose and wire of the floor where you are in.

l           Always think an earthquake will come. The gas cylinder should be tighted. Chemical reagent should be stored properly.

l           Read the chemical material safety sheet before use it. Put safety glass before using them.

l           Remember the radiation level should be less than 25 uSv/h (2.5 mRem/h) always.

l           Remember where is the fire extinguisher located and understand how to use it.


Principle of experiment and instrument maintenance:

l           Make sure your main object of this experiment is justified. Estimate the prediction data and cost (budget, instrument required, sample required, man-hours, time). Justify the purpose of your experiment before doing it.

l           Make sure your data is correct and understand the uncertainty. Can the data be reproducible?

l           Did the instrument calibrated? How is the theory prediction. Did you review enough other papers?

l           Don't throw any data away. Never forge data. It is against the academic discipline.

l           If you think the data is not correct. It means that a new discovery is approaching. If your data is not repeatable. It means a subtle variable play an important role is not under-control. Estimate the uncertainty from those non-reproducible data. Be honesty to your data in an experiment.

l           Write down all the experimental conditions in detail in the note book. 

l           Keep your samples in a well documental place, label them. They are costly.

l           Keep the manual in two copies. One always in cabinets. Keep the software in two copies.

l           Learn fast. You have to operate experiment alone next time.

l           Don't use the brutal force to turn knot or screw. You are not using the right tool because a good engineering design of instrument will not need excess force.

l           Keep oil on your hand out of vacuum chamber. Wear mask during the talk when the vacuum chamber is opened.

l           Don't over tight the screw on chamber, especially, the rubber gasket.

l           Be sure to measure the record the resistance on the filament, heater to check integrity and grounding before experiment begins.

l           Keep the record on everything happened on the instruments.  Keep everything you think on the notebook.

l           Before every experiment, write down the object you want to do, time, experimenters and witness. After the experiments write down the comments and discovery.

l           Be sure to propose any new ideal and thinking on the notebook.

l           Any accidents, new thinking and discovered found, call your advisor immediately.

l           If you are not knowing what you are really doing, or you think you are not doing the meaningful experiments, call your advisor too. Don’t waste SR beamtime, it cost NT$200,000 each day.

l           Keep all the experimental data in duplicate, and notebook should point out the meaning of the experimental data files and experimental conditions. Write down which sample.

l           Please keep the samples in place. Each sample typically cost more than NT10,000 to make it.

l           Before graduate, prepare all your copies of papers, a copy of notebook, experimental data files, all the write-up, programs, drawing files, powerpoint files in CD to your advisor. Return all the borrow books, manuals and papers to your thesis advisors.



Thesis Style: Please referred to any book or chapters of report writing

l           In the English writing styles, the first sentence in a paragraph should speak out the major points, and the rest of sentence is to describe the first sentence.

l           Using the third postposition, and passive term most of the time. You should be humble before Mother Nature. Be doubtful about the research work published by all human beings. Never use “I  in your writing.

l           In the introduction, always referred the important works done by the previous researchers. When you quote someone’s idea of drawing and figures, be sure to put a reference in. This is an essential academic discipline. Otherwise, it will be considered as a pirate.

l           SI unit should be use all the time, Kg -> kg , ev -> eV, a space is needed between number and unit, 1mm -> 1 mm. 1 hr -> 1 h.

l           In the presentation, (1) don’t be too crowded in the viewgraph. (2) If you use someone else' data, be sure to add his name in viewgraphs. (3) Put large font so that all the people can see it. (3) Speak to all the people, look at all the people.

l           Don't stand before screen when you give a lecture.


More tips:

1.        The author are listed only when they are the essential part of the paper. For those people without his help, the experiment will be failed, please add his name on the paper if necessary. Or at least acknowledge him at end of the article.

2.        Each of your words or works come from someone else idea. Be sure to quote the reference of the authors. Put reference on the figure or table copied from someone else.

3.        After you define a terminology. Just define as first cited. Don’t defined again.

4.        In a scientific writing, be concise, never duplicated a sentence unless it is in summary.

5.        The acknowledge is an essential part of article.

6.        The first sentence of a paragraph is the most important one. All the following sentences are to describe the first sentence.

7.        Flow smoothly is very important. When you describe two objects. Please put all the sentences describe the same objects together. To change the description of objects, please put however, nevertheless, while, in between.

8.        Figure caption is under the figure and Table contents is above a table.

9.  Listed in the table XXX. Shown in the Fig. XXX.

10.  Et al. or in-situ should be et al. in-situ

11.  When use Fig. XX instead of fig. Xx. At the beginning of a paragraph, please use Figure xxx instead of Fig. Xxx.

12.  At the beginning of a sentence, never use arbic number to begin. 20 people, Twenty people.

13.  Use SI system: 10 keV is correct. 10keV, 10 KeV, 10 kev are wrong.

10 h or 10 hours are corrected, 10 hr is wrong.